Introduction to Nail Anatomy
Located underneath the free edge of the nail, the hyponychium (pronounced “quick”) is a thin and soft tissue that provides a protective barrier against pathogenic bacteria. This tissue is also rich in white blood cells, which aid the body in fighting infection. It is also an area of epithelium, which forms a continuous fold along the nail bed.
The Hyponychium and Its Role in Protecting the Nail
The hyponychium forms a tight seal between the nail plate and the nail bed. It provides a waterproof barrier to prevent pathogens from entering the nail unit. If you trim the white edge of your toenail, you may accidentally cut into the hyponychium, which can be very painful. Depending on the type of cut, hyponychium injuries may also cause painful bleeding.
The nail matrix is made up of two main parts, the eponychium and the lunula. The eponychium is a thin layer of tissue that adheres to the nail root, and it also produces the cuticle. The lunula is a pale crescent-shaped portion of the nail matrix, and it is located at the proximal end of the nail body. It is the most easily identifiable part of the nail fold. Read more…
The eponychium is the portion of the nail that produces the cuticle, and it also protects the region between the nail plate and the proximal epidermal fold. This part of the nail is very sensitive, and if it is damaged, the nail may have a very awkward shape. The best way to keep the eponychium skin tight is to use jojoba wax ester-based penetrating nail and cuticle oil.
The nail bed, which is a part of the nail matrix, is a soft tissue that surrounds the nail and supports it as it grows. This tissue contains blood vessels, melanin-producing cells, and nerves. It also serves as a mold for the nail’s growth. It is also an area where pathogens can enter the nail, so the nail bed needs to be inspected carefully for any abnormalities in shape or color.
Lateral Folds and the Protective Role of the Hyponychium
When cutting the nail, make sure you use straight toenail clippers and nibble the nail in a gentle, squeezing motion. Always file any rough edges smoothly before cutting. A full-thickness nail bed graft, or petrinychium graft, is a nail bed replacement. Depending on the type of graft, it may have living cells or may lack them. It is rarely used, but it is necessary to replace a lost germinal matrix.
The nail bed is located between the hyponychium and the lunula of the nail matrix. The germinal matrix is the area where the nail cells originate. They are soft when first exposed to air, and they harden as they continue to grow. The lunula, on the other hand, is the visible portion of the matrix. It is a crescent-shaped region at the proximal part of the nail body, and it corresponds to the intermediate part of the germinal matrix.
The hyponychium forms lateral folds on each side of the nail plate. These lateral folds provide a protective seal between the nail plate and the eponychium. When the nail plate is attached to the eponychium with a 5-0 nylon mattress suture, the nail prevents the nail from slipping out of the nail fold.